Located on the western bank of the Red Sea between Mussawa and Port Sudan. It was the old Port of Sudan, history of the port dating back since Pharaonic kingdoms through all eras untill the last two centuries. Monuments of Ruins of the huge building today shows the greatness of the city during that time.
Bajrawia: was the capital of old Meroe kingdom and it includes :
A / Royal city: was the location of an ancient Meroe during fourth century BC and it includes several temples
As temples of the god Amon , Emperor “August” and other scattered buildings in the city in addition to the Roman bathroom .
The widespread of dunes in the city is a result of the iron boom industry of this civilization. It was Birmingham of Africa as known by the historians
B / Eastern Pyramids: located about four kilometers to the east of the city, a royal tombs of the kings and queens of the kingdom of Meroe.
C / Western Pyramids: The property is located between the city’s eastern and pyramids, a small-sized pyramids for men of the royal court and the Minister There are also the remains of the Temple of the Sun
Located 127 kilometers north of Khartoum, and the site represents the remains of the city and a Palace that was built with mud bricks by a number of kings and queens of the kingdom of Meroe in the fourth century BC
Soleb and Sedeinga –
The most important monument at Soleb is the Amun temple built by the King Amenhotep III (XVIII Dynasty) by the same architect who built his funerary temple in Luxor, Amenhotep son of Hapu. On the walls are famous scenes representing the king’s Jubilee “Sed Festival”. The town was surrounded by a wall, now eroded. The necropolis, in use already in Prehistoric times, was reused during the New Kingdom in the reign of the King Tuthmosis III, near-by a large Meroitic necropolis is located. Sedeinga is famous for the temple of the Queen Tiy, wife of the King Amenophi III. Of these monuments only a Hathor column is still standing; the other remains lie on the ground. The name of this monument was Adaya “Hat-Tiye” (House of Tiy). The area is very rich in remains dated to the XXV Dynasty. A big necropolis composed of 400 pyramids in mud brick covered an area of almost more than one km. One of these pyramids is said to be the real tomb of Taharqa. Scenes of the Sed Feast, the portrait of this King and his cartouche are carved on it.
Kerma – Capital of 3rd Cataract
The site is massive covering 20 square Km comprising the Western Deffufa, the Eastern Deffufa and Dokki Gel and a number of other small sites. Pre-Kerma culture equates to the A Group, (3500 – 2200 BC) but Kerma site’s history begins in the late 3rd Millennium and extends into the late New Kingdom. Early Kerma culture dates to 2100 BC, Middle Kerma 2000 BC to 1700 BC and Classic Kerma to 1700- 1550 BC disappearing with the New Kingdom Conquest which leaves its record until the late 13th C BC, although some aspects of Kerma culture survived until 1450 BC. The site continued in use into the Napatan and Meroitic period
It is the capital of Al-Maghara Christian Kingdom , located on the east bank of the Nile 130 km south of Dongola. Site is the remains of an ancient Christian churches dating back to the period, the seventh century AD and the fourteenth century.
The Temple Town is approximately 200 x 150m in area and consists of the stone built temple with Mud brick magazines and a residential area. The town was founded by Amenophis IV (Akhenaten) and Seti I later converted the temple from an Aton Temple to an Amun Temple. A ditched enclosure in the centre of the town may denote an earlier fort. The town would seem to have had little later occupation. Traces of Ballana culture were found in the area. An Ottoman Fort covers the near bye Jebel Sese
The site consists of a group of 7 temples dating from the New Kingdom down to the Meroitic period, a number of associated palace structures, the mountain itself and a group of Meroitic pyramids to the North West of the mountain. The earliest remains on the site dates to Tutmosis III or IV found in B300, which is primarily from the period of Taharqa, it was cut into the foot of the mountain beneath the western pinnacle. The main temple of Amun B500 dates from the reign of Seti I. It may have replaced earlier structures of Amenophis II and Tutmosis III and may have been an integral part of the reconstruction of the Amun cult following the Amarna period. There is evidence of the reuse of talatat blocks in its foundations, taken from Kerma or elsewhere, which Seti I also did with the temples of Amarna.
Nuri – Royal Pyramids of Napata
20 kings and 54 queens have their tombs at Nuri. Taharaqa’s pyramid, 51.75m square and possibly as much as 50m high, was the largest built in Sudan. To the North there are a group of funerary temples and over the northern pyramid group a layer of late period houses and a church was built. The first pyramid here was that of Taharqa (690-664BC) the 5th and penultimate king of the 25th Dynasty. This was built in two stages and had an interesting burial chamber. The inner core remained intact until the end of the 19th C. Tanwetamani returned to El Kurru for his burial but all subsequent kings apart from the 24th Napatan rulers were buried here, including the last prior to removal to Meroe King Nastasen in 308 BC. The kings pyramids were accompanied to the west by smaller pyramids associated with their primary Queens and smaller shaft burials related to their minor queens. They were all robbed in antiquity. The area to the north of N1 had Christian houses built over it and a church was found (Building 100) to the West of Taharqa’s pyramid that incorporated elements of column drums and offering tables into its walls and floor.
Musawwarat es Safra
The earliest material on the site relates to the Small Enclosure and dates from the Kushite Period. The two main buildings that of the Lion Temple and the Great Enclosure are dated to the reign of Arnekhamani (c.235-218 BC). The area seems to have been the centre for worship of Apedemak in Sudan and most of the remains are solely religious in nature. The great hafir was 200-250m square and contained 150,000 cubic metres of water for the pilgrims and gardens. The area is surrounded by 14 quarries used for constructing the buildings.
Site dates from Meroitic Period, when it was called “Tolkte”. Earliest date is Queen Shanakdakhete (C. 130 BC) and may have survived to the end of the 3rd Century AD when the Roman Kiosk is usually dated. It comprises the city area 1 km x 1km, includes the Lion Temple, Amun Temple and East Temple. The site lacks an overall preservation and presentation strategy, the current mission has opened up as much as possible in a relatively short time in order to record the overall urban area. The tops of walls have been exposed for recording, and then back filled. This allows a preliminary assessment of the area but does not help conservation specifically. A protective outer wall is proposed to be established beyond which the asphalt will not be allowed to pass.