April 29, 2017

Presidents of the Sudan


Ismail Al-Azhari
• Born in Obied- Kordufan 1907.
• Studied in the American University of Beirut and was lecturer in Gordon College.
• Contributed in the late 30s and early 40s to lead the national struggle within the Graduates’ Congress and became chairman of Al-Ashiga Party, then the National Unionist Party in which all unionist trends assembled and later the Democratic Unionist Party.
• Held the position of Prime Minister and Minister of Interior on 9/1/1954.
• Was the first national Prime Minister and immediately after independence, Azhari became Prime Minister and Minister of Defense in 1956, then premier and Interior Minister on 4/7/1956. Azhari raised Sudan’s flag, with Mohamed Ahmed Al-Mahjoub at his side, on Jan 1, 1956 after lowering the British and Egyptian flags to usher in Sudan’s independence.
• Held presidency of the National Democratic Party then the Democratic Unionist Party. Became head of the Supreme Council (State) during democratic rule until the military coupe in May 25, 1965 when he was imprisoned. Passed away in 1969

Abdalla Bek Khalil
• Born in 1888.
• Graduated from Gordon College and joined the Egyptian army in Sudan in 1910.
• Fought in the First World War 1914 -1918.
• Joined Sudan Defense Force 1925until 1944 and was the first Sudanese to reach the rank of Brigadier.
• Was active as member of North Sudan executive Council 1943 – 1947. Led co-founder ofthe Umma Party in 1945. Re-elected Party Secretary General in 1948.
• Visited France and England as part of the independence delegation (delegation of independent front’ in 1948).
• Appointed in the legislative assembly 1948 and became its leader.
• Was member of the constitution revision committee in 1951 and aired views of the Umma Party there in.
• Elected deputy for Umm Kaddada constituency in the 1953 general elections.
• Became Prime Minister in July 1956 and until Nov. 1958. Deceased in Sept. 1970.
General Ibrahim Pasha Abboud
• Born in the township of Mohamed Ghol in the Red Sea State on 26/10 / 1900.
• Attended primary and intermediate school in Sawakin then joined the engineering section of Gordon College 1914 where he graduated in 1917. He was admitted to the Military College and graduated with the rank of second Lieutenant on 1/7/1918.
• Worked after graduation, as officer engineer in the Egyptian Military works Corps where he remained until Sudan Defense Force was formed on 17 / 1/1925.
• He was shifted to the Mechanical Transport Corps of the Logistics Department.
• Abboud was promoted to the rank of Lt. General in 15/8/1954 and then became General on 6/1/1957.
• On 4/4/1956 he assumed the post of Commander-General of the Sudanese Army, second Sudanese national to hold the post, and continued until he became Armed Forces Supreme Commander and Prime Minister on 17/11/1958.
• Decorated with many order and medals, including Egypt and the British Kingdom, for excellence, long-term service, Sudan medal for the year 1910, star medal 1939/1945, Africa star and war medals
• Was deposed following October revolution of 1964.


Sir Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa
• Born in Dueim in 1917.
• Graduated as teacher from Gordon College in 1937 Worked for a period in the College and was transferred to Bakht Al-Ridha Teachers’ Training Institute.
• Was sent to the United Kingdom on a scholarship to study education and psychology. In 1961, he travelled to the United States for acquaintance with programs of technical education there.
• Took part in the elections commission in 1956. Acted as assistant undersecretary for Education and Instruction for Southern Provinces in Juba for a period of five years. Promoted to Dean of the Technical Institute in 1960 and deputy undersecretary of the Ministry of Education in 1964.
• Chosen following the October 1964 revolution to head the transitional government until June 1965. Worked as Sudan’s ambassador in Rome and then in London. Held the post of Education Minister during the rule of President Gaafer Numeiry.


Mohamed Ahmed Mahjoub
• Born in Dueim, White Nile in 1908. Graduated from the engineering section of Gordon College, and then joined the first batch of the law school in 1944.
• Appointed judge and was promoted to first district judge, only to resign and work as Lawyer.
• Politician, Literary man and critic. Authored many books in field of Politics, Literature, Sociology, Criticism and Poetry.
• An ardent supporter of Sudan’s independence and a founding member of the Umma Party. Was part of the delegation of the independent front which presented Sudan’s independence question in the UN in San Francesco, USA, Paris and London in 1946.
• Elected in the first elections in 1953 for the graduates constituency, in northern White Nile.
• Appointed Foreign Minister in 1956 and again in the October 1964 government until 1965.
• Became Prime Minister for the first time in June 1965, then in Feb.1967 until May 25, 1969.
• Settled in London after he was deposed by the May 1969 coupe and returned home in 1977. He passed away in 1977.

Field Marshal Gaafar Mohamed Numeiry
• Born in the area of Wad Numeiry in the Northern State.
• Recived secondary education in Hantoub Senior Secondary School and joined the military college.
• In the Army he rose to the rank of Brigadier in the 6Os where he led a coupe detat in May 25,1969 and then was chosen to chair the Military Command council ,since he was the most senior officer among the group of young officers who engineered the coupe.
• As president of the republic he reached the rank of marshal. Following an order retiring three Military Command Council officers, the coupe of July 19, 1971 took place which deposed Numeiry for a period of only three days when he returned to rule July 22, 1971.
• After return. Numeiry became first President of the republic in Sudan vide a referendum in October 1971.
• Then, the Revolution Command Council was dissolved. Faced several coupe attempts against his regime most serious which were the movement of Shaaban 1973, Hassan Hussain’s coupe of 1975 which was aborted within hours and July 2. 1976 military attempt where fighting in the capital raged for more than two days.
• In 1977. Numeiry reached reconciliation with National Front which initiated the July 2, 1976 attempt. However, not all parties to the front were reconciled. In Sept. 1983, he declared Islamic Sharia laws in Sudan.
• He was deposed April 6, 1985 when disgruntled man on the street declared civil disobedience and political strike which was resolved by the Armed Force’s seizure of power the same date. Returned home during the Salvation (Ingaz) rule to chair the alliance of peoples working force’s party (formerly the Sudanese Socialist Union),


Field Marshal Abdul Rahman Sowar Al-Dahab
• Born in Omdurman in 1934
• Graduated from the Military College in 1956. Awarded diploma in military science from Jordan
• Attended military training course in the United Kingdom.
• Worked as military attaché in Sudan’s embassy to Uganda.
• Worked his way from 2nd Lieutenant in 1958 until the rank of General in 1983 when he was appointed chief of the armed forces general staff and then promoted to Marshal in 1986.
• Appointed Minister of defense in 1985. Led the army to the people’s side by seizing power on April 6, 1985 and became head of the Interim Military Council, pledging to pass over authority to the people after a one-year transitional period
• Rescinded power April 1986 following general elections and take-over of Sadig AI-Mehdi
Dr.Gizouli Dafalla
• Born in Danagla village, suburban Medani. Attended the medicine school of Khartoum University 1953 – 1959 and
• Graduated as specialist in internal medicine and held an MSC in medicine and surgery.
• After graduation, he worked as physician with the Health Ministry 1959 and was posted in each of Gedarif, Rifaa, Sennar, Medani and Khartoum North.
• During service. He was senior specialist of internal medicine and specialist in digestive system.
• Member of the UK Medicine College and fellowship of London.
• Member and Doyen of Sudanese Doctors 1982-1985 and chairman of the Sudanese Medical Society.
• Prime Minister of the Interim Government (April 1985- April 1986) where the cabinet shared legislative power at the time with the interim military council.


Sadig Siddig Al-Mehdi
• Born in Omdurman in 1937.
• Attended the UK University of Oxford and joined following graduation government service in the Ministry of Finance and Economy to gain experience in the field of economy.
• After Abboud rose to power, he resigned government service and tended to manage Al-Mehdi’s enterprises.
• During that time, he chaired Sudan’s Union of cotton producers.
• Following the October Revolution, he was elected chairman of the Umma Party but because he was underage, could not stand elections for the constituent Assembly of 1965.
• After reaching the age of 30, his uncle relinquished in his favor Kosti southern constituency where he won unopposed and became deputy in July 1966.
• Sadig became Prime Minister on 3/8/1966 for ten months. He assumed again the premiership post in April 1986 until 29/6/1989.
• Currently he is engaged in politics in Sudan as leader of the Umma party.


Field Marshal Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir
• Born on 1/1/1944 in Hosh Banga village, rural Shendi.
• Officer graduate of Sudan’s military college and worked in the armed forces in various ranks until the rank of Marshal.
• On attaining power in 1989 he was of the rank of Bregadier-General. Units: western command – Air – borne Forces, commander of 8th Infantry battalion
• Academic qualification: Sudan school certificate – fellowship of Sudan Academy for administrative science.
• Military courses: all training courses – parachute instructor’s course in Egypt – master in military science from the General Command and Staff College – Master in military science from the state of Malaysia – chosen to attend a war higher course in Nasser Military Academy.
• Medals and Decorations: Revolution medal – Victory medal – Steadfastness Medal – National Unity Medal -October6Orderfrom Egypt –Medal of Courage from Egypt Medal of long and distinguished service.
• Started as President of the Revolution Command Council and was elected president of the republic in a general referendum.

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