History and civilization
History and civilization of Sudan
The Sudanese civilization dated back to 3000 B.C when where close relations between the Nubian of the north and the Egyptian state at that era , where were close relations between the Nubian of the north and the Egyptian state at that era , where the Egyptian monarchs influence extended to north Sudan .
In the eighth century B.C, the Sudanese Napata kingdom rose .
Its influence extended till southern Egypt the first monarch of Napata was king Kishta [750 -760 B.C ] , whose influence extended northward till the town of thebes in Egypt.
In 750 B.C , Branch , the son of Kishta who became the king of the Nubian land proceeded northward till the borders of his kingdom reached the delta in Egypt.
He succeeded by his son Tehargra , who was known for carrying out grate architectural work and built temples .
He concern about agricultural and commerce . his era left behind many antiquities .
the ancient Merowi is located on the eastern bank of the river Nile close to the present town of Kaboushia , 50 Km of shandi town Nahralneel state .
town competed Napata Merowi as important commercial and cultural center , until it lost its region
Merowi kingdom extended from the first cataract in the north to the Ethiopia and its southern borders extended to the current Sinnar town in capital Sudan . the kingdom was full of pyramids , temples , and royal places . the meriotic kingdom rule 350 A.D by the Ethiopian kingdom Axom .
the Nubian Kingdom:
Christianity entered the Nubian land via Egypt , where the Egyptian town of Thebes was important center for missionary work .
Christianity was introduced into the Nubian land in 543 A.D . the Christian kingdoms in Sudan included Nubatia , Maghra , and Alwa .
Sudan : the post and the present
Islamic entry to Sudan
Islamic entered Sudan across the red sea in the east and through Egypt in the north as well as by the tribes that entered Sudan in the west Muslims conquered Egypt in the seventh century A.D and spread Islam them there .
Abdul Allah Bin Abi Al sarh , sent his army to Sudan to end reaped attacks on his borders from the south . the battles ended in a true between the tow sides .
With renewal of attacks , another army was send to Nubian territory in 651 A.D , which went deeply into Dongla the capital of Christian kingdom of AlMaghara . the exp…………. Well known Al-Bght Treaty , which means …………………… the treaty guaranteed security and peace for the Nubian against maintaining the mosque which was built in Dongla , together with protection of Muslims . Hence Islam spread into Sudan and mosques were built .
The black Sultanate [ 1505 – 1821 A.D ] :
In early sixteenth century A.D , an alliance was concluded between the Funj under Amara Dongla , and the Abdallab led by Abdallab Gamaa , whose orgin is the Quasma Tribes . the alliance led to establishment of the first Arab Islamic state in Sudan , known as the “ black sultanate “ , or the “ Funj sultanate “ with Sinnar as its capital . the northern part of the sultanate made their capital in Garri some 45 Km north of Khartoum in which the Khartoum petrol Refinery has Established .
Fur sultanate and Tagali kingdom :
The rise of Sinnar kingdom by Funj in 1505 A.D opened the way before the establishment of Islamic kingdoms in Sudan , the Fur sultanate was establishment in 1637 A.D with Al-Fashir as its capital in western of Sudan .
Tagali kingdom emerged in the Nuba mountains [ south central Sudan ] in 1530 A.D it managed to maintain its independence till early seventeenth century . Fur sultanate continued up to 1916 . the latest ruler was sultan Ali Dinar .
The Turko –Egyptian Rule in Sudan :
The Turko –Egyptian Era started in Sudan , when the Egyptian rule Mohamed Ali Pasha invaded the country in 19821 with view of utilizing Sudan huge resources . the invasion was faced by grate resistance from the Sudanese peoples however , the imbalance led to the success of the expedition . the Turko – Egyptian rule made Khartoum as its capital . the Sudanese suffered much from the heavy taxes , as well as indignity due to the foreign rule’s tyranny , which paved the way towards the rise of Mahdist Revolution .
The Mahdist state [ 1885 – 1898] :
The Mahdist Revolution in Sudan considered as pride for the whole Sudanese people . the revolution had not been led by only the Muslims in north Sudan but also by the other non-Muslim tribes in the west and south . they fought against the colonizer to restore the national dignity .
The Mahdist revolution was led by Imam Mohamed Ahmed Al Mahadi , and his successor Abdullah Al Taishi Al Mahadi died in 1885 , and was succeeded by the Khalifa Abdullah Al Taishi , who established an independent Islamic state , the capital of the new-born state was Omdurman instead of Khartoum . the Mahdist state ended by the British invasion to the British – Egyptian Condominium rule in 1889 .
The British –Egyptian rule [ 1898-1956] :
the British –Egyptian condominium rule started in 1898 . the British were the actual rules , while the Egyptian presence was nominal despite the fact that the Egyptian flag was run up alongside the British one as a token of partnership .
the national rule :
the British faced a hero I c national resistance through out the period of their rule to Sudan . the strongest resistance movement are as follows :-
The revolution erupted at Meharriba area in central Sudan [ it allow in tribe’s areas ] in the Gezira . state in 1908 as an extension to the Mahdist Revolution
Sultan Ali Dinar Revolution :
When the British seized Sudan , the Fur kingdom was not among the areas they controlled in their early rule , Sultan Ali Dinar was one of the Mahdist Revolutions supports , he managed to return to Darfur , and continued to rule the region , he was attacked by the British , after long resistance he was finally conquered in 1916 , Darfur was then brought under the British Rule .
The 1924 Revolution :
the Sudanese began to develop their methods of resistance after the establishment of schools , and the society became open towards outside the world . they became to from secret societies . In 1921 , they formed the Sudanese Union Association , the “ white Brigade Association “ formed in 1924 , which raised the slogan of “ Nile Valley Unity “ , and demanded independence for both Sudan and Egypt .
In 1924 , the students of the Military school demonstrated and clashed with the colonizer’s army in an imbalance battle in which the Sudanese showed great heroism and sacrificed many martyrs , on the top of them was the national hero , , Abdul Fadeel Almaz [ of Nubian origin , who obtained the martyrdom , when the colonial troops expected the building where he had barricaded while leading a fierce battle , one of the revolution’s symbols was the commander Ali Abdul Latif [ from Dinar Tribe ] , who was arrested by the British , and brought before a court together with his colleague Obeid Haj Al Amin , and they sentenced prison . the British finally the revolution .
The General Graduates Congress and the rise of the political parties :
The General Graduates congress came into existence in early 1940s as a result of Sudanese desire to practice social and cultural activities , later , it developed to reflect the aspiration of the Sudan nation In its struggle against the British colonizer , they went further , and submitted memorandums calling for gather role for the their country .
The political parties started to appear in mid 1940s . the most important of these parties were the U.mma , and Al-Ashigha [ brothers ] parties .
The ideological Islamic and leftist parties also emerged . Eventually , the British felt the desire of the Sudanese people for self-determination , and started to make concession that led to Sudan independence .
The National Rule [ 1956 – 2005 ] ::
The first party-system Government [1956 – 1958 ] :
Sudan had been ruled by a number of national governments after independences under multi-party system ruled from 1954 up to the 16th of November 1958 based on the parliamentary system and the constitution of 1956 , the first government was headed by Ismail Al-Azhari . he was followed by Abdulla Khalil who chaired the national cabinet .
The first Military Rule [ 1958 – 1964 ] :
A Military coup d’état led by General Ibrahim Aboud was staged on November 17, 1985 in which a military Junta seized power , and continued to rule for six years it was toppled by the well-known October popular Uprising in 1964 .
The second party – system Government [ 1965 – 1969 ] :
A multi – party government was formed for a short transitional period from October 30 , 1964 to June 7, 1965 under the leadership of the prime minister Sir Al-khatim Al – Khalifa .
The transitional period ended by the formation of the multi – party parliamentary rule on June 13 , 1965 , where the post of prime minister was assumed by Mr. Mohamed Ahmed Mahgoob . followed by Mr. Al Sadig Al Mahadi , and Mohamed Ahmed Al Mahgoob once again . the head of state during this period was Mr. Ismail Al Azhari , the leader of the Unionist party .
The May Government [ 1969 – 1985 ] :
The rule of the political parties ended on May 25 , 1969 by a military takeover that brought colonel Gafaar Mohamed Numeri to power . Numeri system of rule was presidential republic . the legislative authority was the former parliament “ peoples Assembly “ . he stayed in power for 16 years , and was overthrown by the famous popular Uprising in April 1985 .
The third multi-party system Government ( 1985 – 1989 ) :
May regime was followed by a one year transitional period , during which the government was assumed by a military council , head by Gen . Abdul Rahman Swaradahab , which continued till April 1986 .
Parliamentary elections were held resulting in formation of a constituent assembly , and a government headed by Mr. Al Sadig Al Mahadi , the head of state was assumed by a collective leadership represented in a five – member Supreme council , head by Mr. Ahmed Ali Al Merghani of the government was ended by the eruption of the National Salvation Revolution on June 30 , 1989 .
The National Salvation Revolution :
The most important policies pursued by the national Salvation revolution , led by the filed Marshal Omer Hassan Ahmed Al Basher , were restructuring the Sudanese economy , utilization of petroleum resources for the first time , in addition to promoting agricultural , industry , health , education , as well as achievement of tangible increase in numbers of higher education institutes and universities , and upgrading of the infrastructures .
The revolution had also introduced the federal system of government , leading to establishment of 26 states in the country with view of not too many ………………
The salvation government v adopted a foreign policy based on putting the its foreign relation on the right track .Eventually , the salvation government was apble to put an end to African’s longest civil war in southern Sudan by signing the comprehensive peace Agreement [ CPA] , with the Sudan people’s liberation movement / army [ SPLM / SPLA ] , in Naivasha Suburb , Kenya , on January 9 , 2005 , bringing Sudan into a new era .